Access Management Process
The purpose of the Access Management process is to provide the rights for users to be able to access a service or group of services, while preventing access to non-authorized users.
Access Management helps to manage confidentiality, availability and integrity of data and intellectual property.
Access Management is concerned with identity (unique information that distinguishes an individual) and rights (settings that provide access to data and services). The process includes verifying identity and entitlement, granting access to services, logging and tracking access, and removing or modifying
rights when status or roles change.
Problem Management Process
A problem is a cause of one or more incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a problem record is created, and the problem management process is responsible for further investigation.
The key objectives of Problem Management are to prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening, to eliminate recurring incidents and to minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.
Problem Management includes diagnosing causes of incidents, determining the resolution, and ensuring that the resolution is implemented. Problem Management also maintains information about problems and the appropriate workarounds and resolutions.
Problems are categorized in a similar way to incidents, but the goal is to understand causes, document workarounds and request changes to permanently resolve the problems. Workarounds are documented in a Known Error Database, which improves the efficiency and effectiveness of Incident Management.
Common Service Operation Activities
Service Operation includes a number of activities that are not part of the five processes described.
- monitoring and control: to detect the status of services and CIs and take appropriate corrective action
- console management/operations bridge: a central coordination point for monitoring and managing services
- management of the infrastructure: storage, databases, middleware, directory services, facilities/data centre etc.
- operational aspects of processes from other lifecycle stages: Change, Configuration, Release and Deployment, Availability, Capacity, Knowledge, Service Continuity Management etc.
Service Desk Function - The Service Desk provides a single central point of contact for all users of IT. The Service Desk usually logs and manages all incidents, service requests and access requests and provides an interface for all other Service Operation processes and activities.
Specific Service Desk responsibilities include:
- logging all incidents and requests, categorizing and prioritizing them
- first-line investigation and diagnosis
- managing the lifecycle of incidents and requests, escalating as appropriate and closing them when the user is satisfied
- keeping users informed of the status of services, incidents and requests
There are many ways of structuring and organizing service desks, including:
- local service desk: physically close to the users centralized service desk: allows fewer staff to deal with a higher volume of calls
- virtual service desk: staff are in many locations but appear to the users to be a single team
- follow the sun: Service Desks in different time zones give 24-hour coverage by passing calls to a location where staff are working.
Technical Management Function - Technical Management includes all the people who provide technical expertise and management of the IT infrastructure. Technical Management helps to plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure and ensure that required resources and expertise are in place to design, build, transition, operate and improve the IT services and supporting technology.
Activities carried out by Technical Management include: identifying knowledge and expertise requirements defining architecture standards involvement in the design and build of new services and operational practices contributing to service design, service transition or continual service improvement projects assistance with service management processes, helping to define standards and tools, and undertaking activities such as the evaluation of change requests assistance with the management of contracts and vendors.
Technical Management is usually organized based on the infrastructure that each team supports.
Application Management Function - Application Management includes all the people who provide technical expertise and management of applications. As such they carry out a very similar role to Technical Management, but with a focus on software applications rather than infrastructure. It is common in many organizations to refer to applications as services, but applications are just one component needed to provide a service. Each application may support more than one service, and each service may make use of many applications. This is especially true for modern service providers who create shared services based on service- oriented architectures. Application Management works closely with Development, but is a distinct function with different roles. Activities carried out by Application Management are similar to those described above for Technical Management.
Application Management is usually organized by the lines of business that each team supports.
IT Operations Management Function - IT Operations Management is responsible for the management and maintenance of the IT infrastructure required to deliver the agreed level of IT services to the business.
It includes two functions:
- IT Operations Control is usually staffed by shifts of operators who carryout routine operational tasks. They provide centralized monitoring and control, usually from an operations bridge or network operations centre.
- Facilities Management is responsible for management of data centres, computer rooms and recovery sites. Facilities Management also coordinates large-scale projects, such as data centre consolidation or server consolidation.